In a DC machine, two kinds of magnetic fluxes are prese […]
In a DC machine, two kinds of magnetic fluxes are present; 'armature flux' and 'main field flux'. The effect of armature flux on the main field flux is called as armature reaction.
MNA And GNA
EMF is induced in the armature conductors when they cut the magnetic field lines. There is an axis (or, you may say, a plane) along which armature conductors move parallel to the flux lines and, hence, they do not cut the flux lines while on that plane.
MNA (Magnetic Neutral Axis) may be defined as the axis along which no emf is generated in the armature conductors as they move parallel to the flux lines. Brushes are always placed along the MNA because reversal of current in the armature conductors takes place along this axis.
GNA (Geometrical Neutral Axis) may be defined as the axis which is perpendicular to the stator field axis. Armature Reaction The effect of armature reaction is well illustrated in the figure below.
Consider, no current is flowing in the armature conductors and only the field winding is energized (as shown in the first figure of the above image). In this case, magnetic flux lines of the field poles are uniform and symmetrical to the polar axis. The 'Magnetic Neutral Axis' (M.N.A.) coincides with the 'Geometric Neutral Axis' (G.N.A.). The second figure in the above image shows armature flux lines due to the armature current. Field poles are de-energised.
Now, when a DC machine is running, both the fluxes (flux due to the armature conductors and flux due to the field winding) will be present at a time. The armature flux superimposes with the main field flux and, hence, disturbs the main field flux. This effect is called as armature reaction in DC machines.